How Brazilian Die/mold Cluster Birth and Progress: Joinville Mechanism

Type de publication:

Conference Paper


Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2021)


“Brazil”, “die/mold cluster”, “Global Value Chain”


How Brazilian Die/mold Cluster Birth and Progress: Joinville Mechanism

Toshiyuki Baba, Hose University Japan

For R&D and production an automobile, die/mold are very important tool. To produce one automobile several thousand auto parts needed. To produce one auto parts, several sets of die/mold needed. To produce one automobile, a tremendous number of die/mold needed. Now Brazil became one of global top ten car production countries. In many countries of car production, they are having difficulties to procure domestic die/mold.
In Brazil, there are several domestic die/mold cluster. The Biggest one is in Sau Paulo. In there around a thousand die/mold manufacturers exist. In Sao Paulo, most large die/mold cluster is in ABCD district where is historically the center of car production in Brazil, where exits 400 die/mold manufacturers. The characteristic of ownership of them are mixed with European, Asian and Brazilian.
Two large die/mold clusters with Brazilian owners are in Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. The center city of die/mold cluster in Santa Cataria is Joinville. The center city in Rio Grande do Sul is Caxias do Sul. There are 450 die/mold manufacturers are operating in Santa Catarina. In Joinville there are around 300 die/mold manufacturers of them. In Rio Grande do Sul, there are 380 die/mold manufacturers are operating. In Caxias do Sul, there are 300 of them. The characteristic of owner ship of Joinville, the many of owners and labors are German-Brazilian. The characteristic of owner ship of Caxias do Sul, the many of owners and labors are Italian-Brazilian.
The reason of these characteristics of ownership are very related how these die/mold cluster were born and progressed. This time, the author focused to research how Joinville die/mold cluster were born and progressed. He conducted field survey in Joinville and find how die/mold cluster of Joinville were born and progressed.
Joinville is a colonial town established in 1851. Many immigrants came here from mainly Germany and Swiss. They were farmers in their mother countries. They also started agriculture here. Gradually, some of them started industry. Die/mold are one of important essential tools for industrial production. Entrepreneurs needs die/mold at first from foreign countries. And demand for die/mold was emerged die/mold cluster here in Joinville as follows.1st stage were in around 1930s-70s. Die/mold demanders there should imported all dies/molds from foreign countries. There are no die/mold manufactures in Brazil then. 2nd stage were in 1930s-70s. Die/mold users gradually started to produce dies/molds in in-house tool divisions. 3rd stage were in 1970s-80s. Some enterprises spun out these tool divisions and started their own die/mold companies. 4th stage were in 1970s-80s. Die/mold manufactures merged in 3rd stage operated die/mold maintenance or produced die/mold parts for demanders. 5th stage were in 1970s-80s. There die/mold manufactures acquired accurate die/mold technology through learning-by-doing and began to produce dies/molds themselves. 6th stage were in 1990s-2000s. As the die/mold demand grew, some entrepreneurs spun out and started their own die/mold companies and progressed through stage 4 to 5. In this way, Joinville die/mold cluster were born and progressed. The author named this as “Joinville Mechanism”.


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